The Maldives Monetary Authority (MMA) was established on 1st July 1981, and is endowed with the regular powers and obligations of a central bank under the mandate provided by the MMA Act (1981). To this effect, the MMA issues currency
, regulates the availability of the Maldivian rufiyaa
and promotes its stability, licenses, supervises and regulates institutions in the financial sector, formulates and implements monetary policy, and advises the Government on issues relating to the economy and financial system in order to foster an environment conducive to the orderly and balanced economic development of the Maldives.
A second amendment to MMA Act (1981) has been passed by the Majlis and ratified by the President on 5th April 2007. The new amendment of the Act provides for the autonomy of the MMA by separating the positions of the Finance Minister and the MMA Governor.
The Maldives Monetary Authority aims to be a key player in enabling a domestic economic environment that is conducive to maintaining sustainable economic growth and development.
Prudent monetary and exchange rate
policies will be implemented with the aid of up-to-date technology by well-trained and able staff, to facilitate and regulate a sophisticated and dynamic financial sector that is able to meet the needs of a nation that aspires to attain high-ranking middle-income developing country status by the year 2020.
Organisational Structure and Functions
The Maldives Monetary Authority is structured in six Divisions:
- The Banking and Payments Settlement Division;
- The Economic Research and Statistics Division;
- The Human Resources Division;
- The Financial Sector Division;
- The Information Technology Division and the Corporate Division.
The Banking Payments and Settlements Division
(BPSD) consists of the Foreign Exchange
, Banking, Public Debt, Treasury Management, and Currency Sections. The Foreign Exchange and Treasury Management Sections deal with all matters relating to foreign currency transactions by the MMA and the management of the country’s foreign reserves. The Banking Section, in addition to maintaining the accounts of Government offices and commercial banks, acts as a clearinghouse for the commercial banks operating in the Maldives. The Currency Section is responsible for printing and minting of currency notes and coins, issuing commemorative coins, maintaining the records of currency in circulation and in stock and releasing new notes and coins into circulation. The Public Debt Section, is responsible for securitising, monitoring and managing government debt.
The Financial Sector Division
(FSD) consists of the Credit and Bank Supervision, Non-Bank Financial Institution Supervision, Credit Bureau, Financial Intelligence and Financial Education Sections. The duties of the Credit and Bank Supervision Section include issuing licences for commercial banks to operate in the Maldives, monitoring activities of commercial banks to ensure their compliance to the rules and regulations of the MMA, and assessing the financial health and performance of commercial banks. The Non-Bank Financial Institutions Supervision Section is responsible for licensing, regulating and supervising insurance companies, leasing companies and other non-bank financial institutions to ensure their smooth functioning.
The Economic Research and Statistics Division
(ERSD) is the research wing of the MMA. The ERSD has three sections: the Monetary Section, the Balance of Payments Section and the Economic Analysis and Research Section. The Monetary Section compiles monetary and financial statistics according to international standards; produces weekly liquidity forecasts and undertake analysis and research on monetary issues and monetary policy. The Balance of Payments Section is responsible for:
- the compilation of the balance of payments and international investment position of the country, according to international standards;
- undertake research and analysis on balance of payments and other key issues relating to the external sector;
- provide annual balance of payments projections.
The Economic Analysis and Research Section monitors and analyses domestic and international economic developments. In addition, this section disseminates data and information through various publications such as the Annual Report, Quarterly Economic Bulletin, Monthly Macroeconomic Brief and Monthly Statistics; and also works to broaden the understanding of economic knowledge of MMA staff and the general public, especially secondary and tertiary school students, in the areas of money and banking, macroeconomics, and international economics. This section also has the responsibility to liaise with the International Monetary Fund and carry out activities related to SAARCFINANCE.
is mainly responsible for the general administration of the Authority. The division provides managerial support for the continuity of its daily operations without any disruptions.
Corporate Division compromises of six sections:
- Legal Section;
- Administrative Section;
- Building and Property Management Section;
- Public Relations;
- Media Management and Publications Section;
- Accounts and Finance Section;
- Corporate Governance Section.
Legal Section manages all legal issues arising from external and internal matters and provides legal guidance on contracts and project negotiations. Administrative Section provides managerial support for events and activities, which takes place within MMA. The maintenance of MMA’s assets and premises and provision of security services is undertaken by the Building and Property Management Section. Accounts and Finance Section handles accounts of payments of expenses, planning of budget and deals with other financial matters. Apart from these, this section is responsible for procuring of goods in close co-ordination with the relevant sections. All media related activities, management of the publications of MMA together with public relation activities such as providing protocol service for visiting foreign delegation is undertaken by the Public Relations, Media Management and Publications Section. The Corporate Governance Section deals with setting standards of corporate governance code that are to be implemented and to provide information, monitor and review such records as and when required.
The Information Technology Division
(ITD), is responsible for the IT needs of the Authority. The Division consists of the IT Development Section, which plans the direction and development of IT applications in MMA, and the IT Services Section, which provides IT support services and deals with the delivery of IT services in the organization.
Human Resources Division
deals with staff matters of the organization. The Division formulates and implements human resource management and development policies, conducts tasks related to employment, which includes attracting talents for the organization, managing and retaining talents through a performance appraisal system and a competitive remuneration package as well as developing talents through need-based training and development programmes.
The work of the Division is undertaken by three sections:
- Human Resource Management Section;
- Training and Development Section;
- Staff Welfare and Benefits Section.
The Human Resource Management Section deals with matters related to staff recruitment, selection, leave, attendance, grievances, performance management, record keeping and other related matters in managing staff. Training and Development Section is responsible for training staff to update existing knowledge and skills and gain new competencies in the required fields. For this, the Section arranges short term and long term training, seminars, conferences and workshops. In addition, induction training, staff in-house trainings and section specific specialized trainings will be organized and conducted if requested. Staff Welfare and Benefits Section deals with development and management of staff pension scheme, health scheme welfare scheme and staff payroll.
The financial sector in the Maldives is very narrow and is dominated by the banking industry. There are seven banks currently operating in the Maldives which include one locally owned commercial bank, branches of four foreign banks, one locally incorporated subsidiary of a foreign bank and an Islamic bank.
The Non-bank financial institutions in the country consist of a finance leasing company, a specialized housing finance institution, insurance companies, money services businesses and securities market intermediaries. All banks and the non-bank financial institutions, except for the securities market intermediaries are licensed, regulated and supervised by the Maldives Monetary Authority.
The Capital Market Development Authority (CMDA) is the regulator for the securities market in the Maldives. It has statutory powers to license securities market intermediaries including brokers, dealers, investment advisers, as well as stock exchanges and central depositories.
- Currency of Maldives:
- Maldivian Rufiyaa
- List of Central Banks:
- Central Banks
- Official website of Maldives Monetary Authority:
- Ministry of Planning and National Development:
- Ministry Of Finance And Treasury of Maldives: