The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures.
These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962.
The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives.
The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda.
A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics.